THE regime dietary plays a role of first order in the appearance of the diseases of the system cardiovascular and often affects of form determinant also in their treatment. For this reason keep under control fats, proteins of animal origin, sweets and alcoholic beverages.
Arteriosclerosis is a disease of generative of the arteries, characterized by the deposition of lipids in the wall of the vessel, where they form a real plate, inside which often precipitates calcium or develops a bleeding or ulceration. The result of this lesion is a decrease of the arterial lumen to occlusion, which gives rise to serious disorders linked to the decrease in the blood supply of the zone corresponding to the affected vessel; they can also shed the lesion small fragments (emboli), which are carried by the bloodstream to different organs, where can occlude smaller caliber vessels, causing a heart attack. The causes of this deposit of fats in the artery wall are multiple: racial, hereditary, constitutional factors, dietetic errors, abuse of tobacco, alcohol or coffee, psychoemotional and little physical activity stress. The importance of a diet adequate in the prevention of arteriosclerosis is evident, not only in those patients who already suffer from diseases of the coronary or cerebral vessels, but especially in those subjects which, not yet presenting a typical symptomatology, at high risk due to constitutional characteristics, obesity, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle and tobacco abuse.
The diet of an individual with figures higher than normal blood cholesterol should be based on the following principles:
caloric content specifically tailored to the needs either promptly reduced to obtain a reduction in body weight;
• reduction of the content of lipids (gra sas), in order that the calories provided by lipids turn lathe a! 20% of the calorie totals of the diet. Entails a reduction of the daily amount of fat and the abolition of the foods that contain a high percentage of lipids;
• Replace in the diet of foods that contain saturated fatty acids (in general of animal origin with the exception of the fish and the poultry) by foods rich in fatty acids, unsaturated (in general of vegetable origin);
• reduction of the foods that contain cholesterol;
• abolition or drastic reduction of the sugar and foods containing it.
The diagram on the following page lists the daily cantidadades of nutrients necessary to formulate diets of 1,200 and 1,800 calories a day. These diets are indicated in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia of the adult persons with very moderate physical activity: 1,800 calories is indicated in people with a normal body weight, that of 1,200 calories in overweight subjects who need also to lose weight for health reasons.
CHOICE OF FOOD
Suggestions on the choice of food can be the following:
Milk: only skimmed, fresh or powdered, respecting the designated daily amount. Part of the milk will be used in the preparation of certain dishes.
Eggs: because of its high cholesterol content, it is necessary to limit its consumption to two per week.
Meats: excluding fats and semigrasas parties, they should choose parties more lean pheasant, veal, rabbit, the poiio, the cow or any other game birds. Once all the visible fat removed and once you have chosen the less streaked parties, all meats can be cooked baked, grilled or boiled. The skin of birds must be removed after cooking. Viscera, are not permitted by their high cholesterol content.
Fish: fresh or frozen, of any kind, cooked in the oven, grilled or boiled, excluding the more fatty fish (eel, mackerel, herring, salmon) and fish oil.
Cold cuts and sausages: allowed only in of finished quantities and once a week the cured meat and cooked lean ham. All others, because of its high fat content are prohibited.
Cheeses and derived milk: allowed only once a week the curd of cow. All others, because of its high fat content are prohibited.
Bread, rice, pasta and other grains: bread substitution is not supported for breadsticks, toasted bread or crackers; only the replacement of the bread are allowed per breadsticks made without fat.
Vegetables, vegetables and legumes: allowed all green leafy vegetables and vegetables. Eat at least once a day (100 gram) serving of vegetables rich in vitamin A (carrots, spinach, Endive). The potatoes and beans are per miten as Variant, as shown in the diagram.
Fruit: allowed, in the daily amount