THE DIET OF THE CARDIAC PATIENT

MUST be a diet to heart based food very light and poor in sodium so that the heart not is tired, since there is a close relationship between digestion and work heart. For the same reason, it is certainly convenient to split the daily ration of food in five meals.

enfermos-corazonWhatever disease that affects the heart, dietary treatment aims always to reduce the work of that organ, yet fail to provide the body the nutrients that it needs. However, the diet varies considerably, and more from the qualitative point of view than quantitative, if the patient suffers from a compensated or decompensated heart disease.
The imbalance is a situation cardiocirculatory characterized by the inability of the heart to face the demands of the tissues, especially as regards their oxygen needs. In other words, the heart is not able to expel all the blood which comes or print which can expel the force needed to move it to the appropriate speed. The State of compensation is characterized instead by the capacity of the heart, even if it is sick, to maintain one sufficient blood flow to meet the needs of the tissues.

COMPENSATED HEART DISEASE

The basic characteristic in which the choice of the most suitable food for the sick of heart, should be apart from its sodium content, is its digestibility. Digestion is a job. During the digestive process a remarkable amount of blood flows to the digestive system, being the amount much higher much richer has been food intake and the more laborious and slow digestion is. Any displacement of the mass blood and, in general, any overload of the circulation weigh on the heart, that is the force motor of the system, by what as, more is come more should work the heart. This is the fundamental concept on which, apart from the contribution of sodium, is based around the heart patient diet approach. The meals should be little abundant.
It is convenient, in addition, that food to be some voluminous, i.e. containing the required amount of calories in a modest volume. Thus the stomach is only moderately, dilated with a double advantage: the demand for blood from the digestive system is less and at the same time there is a lower elevation of the diaphragm. The stomach, in fact, is located immediately below the diaphragm, so that, if it swells, resulted in the elevation of the latter.
We all know that the diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle, insofar as its contraction determines an increase of the capacity of the rib cage and consequently a reduction in pressure on the inside: This creates a flow of air from the outside into the lungs. The distended stomach is a mechanical obstacle which limits this movement. This produces a lower inflow of air into the lungs and consequently a decrease in the availability of oxygen, this oxygen which the patient‘s heart is not overrun. To compensate for this deficiency, the heart is forced to increase, while you can, the pace and efficiency of your contractions to increase the speed of blood flow and get the greatest number of red blood cells pass through the lungs and capture all of the available oxygen. However, since cardiac reserve capacity it is reduced, not always the heart manages to respond as it should and is then displayed when breathing difficulty that the patient‘s heart often accused after a toohearty meal. In this way the body tries, through an acceleration of respiratory rate, increase the amount of oxygen that reaches the lungs.
To avoid this excessive heart work the heart patient should reduce the volume of your meals. For this reason it is suitable to minimize the amount of water and other fluids ingested during meals and avoid sodas, in the same way that needs to re duce the consumption of legumes, which induce a marked intestinal fermentation, to reduce the volume of food should be in line generals avoided vegetable substances, given that, at equal mass their nutritional value is clearly inferior to the food products of animal origin. However this raises another problem: constipation. Indeed, the patient‘s heart in general suffers constipation, regardless of the type of diet that follows, due to blood stagnation that occurs at the level of the digestive tract as a result of the loss of heart function.
The phenomenon is especially manifest in case of heart disease unbalanced. Constipation is a negative phenomenon, not only because it determines a slower elimination of waste, but also by that forces the subject to make efforts during defecation. Indeed, the Act of pushing causes a sharp decline in the rate of blood circulation and therefore an obstacle that the heart can not exceed if it is not through a strong work. The patient‘s heart must therefore avoid efforts in defecation, which can be very dangerous. And to avoid, at least partially, this problem so as to ensure one sufficient vitamins and minerals contribution, we must not exclude the heart patient diet vegetables, but it is necessary to find a balance between the need to reduce the volume of the diet, on the one hand, and to avoid constipation and provide vitamins and salts on the other.
Special care must be taken with dinner, which should be light and must be consumed three hours before bedtime, so that digestion is finished when the patient adopt the horizontal position; This position is already by itself an increase in work. A careful chewing and some slowness to the eat facilitate significantly throughout the process digestive.
As regards the amount of food, they should be avoided, as it seems obvious, all those who favor a slow and difficult digestion is fat (especially if they are fried), cakes, creams and custards, which are impregnated with difficulty by digestive juices because of its compact nature. For the same reason, they are preferable, rather than fresh, more compact bread, toasted bread and the breadsticks.

DECOMPENSATED HEART DISEASE

All the tips provided in the case compensated heart disease are applicable to the unbalanced; in this case, however, the restrictions must be even more rigid, since the heart is in worst condition and any error is paid immediately. The total caloric intake should not exceed 1,500 calories. In the initial period of treatment, the doctor often limits even more rigidly the diet, and may if necessary reduce it to a simple water diet, consisting only of liquids.
In the diet of the subject who suffers decompensated heart disease is fundamental problem of the contribution of sodium. You must reduce the contribution of that element, first, to avoid the appearance of edema or cause its elimination when they are present, and, secondly, to reduce the burden that blood circulation is subjected. Sodium is the main extracellular electrolyte and, given their characteristic capture certain amount of water, is the primary responsibility of the hydration status of the organism in general and of the amount of extracellular fluids in particular.
Due to certain mechanisms pathological that is put up in the decompensation, the patient in this situation tends to eliminate an amount reduced of sodium and therefore of water. The retained water, when it exceeds certain limits, gives rise to overt edemas. To avoid this problem, it is essential to reduce the amount of sodium that is introduced with the diet, proportionally to the decrease in the amount of sodium removed.
Given that sodium retention is both greater the more severe is the imbalance, it is not possible to provide accurate data on the amount of sodium that can bring the diet: what dose it according to the needs of each case.
As regards the amount of water ingested by the individual who suffers a decompensated heart disease, it is convenient to not exceed the daily liter.
Diet Normocalorica and reduced sodium normoproteica
Diet basic
Morning heart
Milk 200ml skimmed
coffee
sugar 25 g
breadsticks 30 g unsalted
yogurt skimming 120gr
Toast 30gr
Noon
pasta with tomato 70 g oil 10 g
Chicken roast 150 g oil 10 g
vegetables: potatoes 150 g oil 10 g
breadsticks without ups 40 g
fruit: 150 g apples
rice, pasta with vegetables and oil 150 g of meat, chicken, liver, prepared to taste fish 150 g of whole fresh seasonal fruit or fruit macedonia or cooked fruit
Night
rice in vegetable broth 30 g oil 5 g
1 egg omelette
oil 10 g
vegetables: beans green 150 g
oil 10 g
fruit: pears 150 g
breadsticks 30 g
30 g of soup noodles or grits in vegetable broth or vegetable soup
see lunch meat

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