Regardless of the cause that causes it, the first step to be taken is to put the patient face up, with legs slightly higher than the head and in “security posture”.
Fainting or lipotimia is a transient loss of consciousness due to insufficient cerebral blood flow of mild and short duration.
immediately preceding a fading are usually:
• feeling of dizziness and emptiness in the head; • feeling nauseous;
• ringing in the ears;
• Obfuscation of the sight so far described by the patient as “seeing black”.
It is important that the person who is close to the subject invaded by this type of discomfort is taken care of immediately that the affected person feels or lies.
In general, this simple maneuver relieves in a short time the symptomatology, until the disappearance of it; other times, on the other hand, there is a more or less complete loss of knowledge (it is clear that in such a case the doctor’s prompt intervention is necessary).
The most obvious symptoms are:
• cold sweat;
• weak or imperceptible and frequent pulse.
These symptoms report a sudden drop or fall in blood pressure (which can reach values of up to 70 mm of mercury in relation to the minimum pressure), with the corresponding lack of oxygenation of the brain tissue.
Causes of fainting are multiple and are not always related to a disease.
Congestion or the state of gestation, for example, can cause a momentary loss of knowledge.
They can be origin of lipotimia: the permanence for a long time in position orthostatic (erguida) and immobile in climatic conditions or general (crowd) exhausting; situations of emotional stress; a sharp or sudden pain somewhere in the body; and, finally, too fast or too slow breathing.
The causes of lipothymia linked to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and neurological diseases are part of the symptomatological picture of the disease itself.
Let’s see below which are the guidelines to be followed (without losing the calm) in case of being before an individual afflicted by a disorder of this type
WHAT IS THERE TO DO
The first steps to take when faced with a fainting or vertigo case are:
• lying down on the patient’s back (on a bed or on the floor), if possible with the head lower than the rest of the body, for which cushions or other objects can be placed under the hips and legs position;
• immediately unfasten any type of garment (tie, skirt, shirt collar, etc.) in order to allow sufficient air supply and better circulation of blood;
• If the patient’s condition is totally unconscious, he should be placed on a flank, with his head tilted and slightly situated upwards (safety posture), in order to prevent, in case of regurgitation of liquids, the frequent and dramatic possibility of suffocation.
WHAT NOT TO DO
When the patient notices certain discomfort is important:
• not administer liquids under any circumstances and even less alcoholic beverages;
• do not “slap” it or splash it with cold water;
• do not lift it to a sitting or standing position for any reason, even if it has been a while after the discomfort has subsided;
• do not expose it to drafts or cold (opening windows, etc.),
IT IS A DECREASE in the blood pressure that is recorded when moving from the lying position to the erect position. It is a phenomenon that also affects perfectly healthy people due to a momentary lack of regulation of blood pressure.
The mechanisms that regulate this operation consist of an increase in heart rate and muscle tone and in a vasoconstriction, and are intended to balance the force of gravity that tends to gather blood in the lower parts of the organism, this form, the normal circulation and, consequently, the oxygenation of all the organs, including the brain.
In some individuals these control mechanisms are abnormally slow or deficit, so that a blood pressure decrease of even 50-60 mm Hg can occur. There is talk of orthostatic hypotension when the voltage drop is more than 20 mm Hg.
The disorders that are registered are a deep feeling of vertigo, discomfort and sudden pallor; it can lead to loss of consciousness and, in some cases, seizures.
In this case it is important that the subject take up the lying position and, when rising again after a few minutes, take the precaution to do it very slowly.
Orthostatic hypotension can be primitive, that is, it does not depend on any pre-existing or secondary disease, ie, it is a symptom of nerve or endocrine diseases. In such cases it is necessary to cure the disease so that the symptom disappears.
The point “renzhong”
Ancient Chinese medicine identified a series of points located throughout the body surface and correspond to nerve endings prior to the various ganglia or organs that act as receptors and transmitters of stimuli external to the central nervous system or directly to organs such as heart.
The renzhong point (the “center of man”) is located at the midpoint of the canal between the nose and the upper lip. It is one of the main points of resuscitation: by exerting pressure on it, after two or three minutes, the return to the normal state of consciousness is achieved.
Another important point in case of discomfort similar to fading but that does not become loss of knowledge is the tip of the nose.
Thus, in the face of a strong sensation of dizziness or dizziness due, for example, to an embarrassment, a strong impression of fear, to having witnessed a serious accident, or to a state of malaise provoked by drunkenness (vertigo, vomiting, feeling of loss of consciousness), you must press the tip of the nose strongly with the thumbnail.
The two images indicate, on the right, the resuscitation point located between the nose and the upper lip; to the left, the point located at the tip of the nose and the correct way to put pressure on it.